The website performance blog posts series focuses on the techniques and tools that can be use to improve a website’s performance.

Optimizing web application performance is all about numbers and metrics so, before delving into optimization techniques, it is essential to understand what can be optimized and how to measure improvements in performance. In this post, we will review the five areas where website performance can be improved, how to establish a performance baseline, and how to measure progress.

Using user-perceived delay as a metric

The overall goal of improving performance is to minimize the perceived delay the user experiences between the moment he clicks on the link and the page is finally displayed. The reason why we are focusing on minimizing the user-perceived delay rather than any other metric is because, in the end, what matters is improving your user’s/visitor’s experience. Having a user-centric mind set is important because it gives us a clear way to prioritize where to spend our resources and focus our efforts.  For example, even if implementing a new caching system seems exciting, it might not be useful if the resource-processing time only accounts for 5% of the user-perceived delay.  Of course, if your servers are under heavy load reducing it is important, but I believe that only looking at performance from the user’s point of view will give you the whole picture. For example, reducing the perceived delay can be achieved by adding progress indicators and deferred loading, which gives the user something to focus on while the rest of the page is loading. These kinds of optimizations are not captured by other metrics.

Four strategies to reduce the perceived delay

Even if a web page appears to the users as a single entity with a define URL, behind the scene it is assemblage of web resources that the browser fetches and renders. Even the smallest page is composed of multiples resources that usually include images, JavaScript code, and cascading style sheet (CSS).  Before the user sees the page and can interact with it, at least some of these resources must be fetched and processed by the browser. For this reason, we have four non-mutually exclusive strategies to reduce the perceived delay:

  1. Reducing the time the browser takes to fetch a given resource: This can be done, for instance, by reducing the server processing time, using browser caching, and HTTP pipelining.
  2. Decreasing the number of requests: This can be done by reducing the number of resources by using sprites and combining JavaScript. To decrease the number of elements that need to be effectively loaded, we can leverage the browser cache and use a mutualized version of popular JavaScript libraries (i.e., JQuery)
  3. Optimizing the rendering speed: This can be done, for example, by using more efficient CSS selectors, a better page layout, and optimizing the JavaScript code.
  4. Making the loading time appear shorter: Leverage how humans perceive information to make the delay appear less than it really is by adding loading indicators, pre-caching, and deferred loading strategies (the famous AJAX paradigm).

The lifecycle of the a web resource

For each resource the browser fetches, the five steps depicted in the following diagram occur. Note that, for simplicity, I am not taking into account caching mechanisms here as they will be the subjects of an entire post.

In the first step, resolving, the browser needs to translate the URL into an IP address by performing DNS queries. Believe it or not, this step is not free, as it can take a couple of hundred milliseconds, depending of your DNS server and visitor physical locations, as we will see below. In a requesting step, the browser connects to your web server to ask for the resource. The duration of this step does not depend on your server bandwidth but on the “physical” distance between your web server and your visitor.  If your server is located in Europe and your visitor on the east coast of the United States, no matter what you do, the connecting step will takes at least 60 ms because of the speed of light. As we will discuss extensively in upcoming blog posts, using a CDN (content delivery network) will help reduce this delay by relocating your content closer to your client. In the processing step, the server generates the content or reads the resources from the disk.  The duration of this step can be reduced by implementing server side caching, using more powerful servers, and optimizing your web application code. Load balancing between servers is also one of the optimization techniques that can be applied at this stage. The duration of the transferring step is mainly dominated by how big the element is and how much bandwidth the clients have with your server. Having smaller elements and compressing them can reduce the duration of this step. For example dedicated software exists to make JavaScript and CSS files smaller (this process is called minification). The “download speed” can be improved by having a better bandwidth provider, better peering , or using CDN. The rendering step occurs on the browser side. The rendering speed can be improved by making the browser’s job easier. This includes adding dimension to the images, writing faster JavaScript code and linearizing the page layout.

How to measure our progress?

Now that we have a clearer idea of what we want to do, we need the right tools to measure our progress.  There are a lot of performance/benchmark tools, all of which with their utility. For example recommendation tools, such as yslow, that analyzes your page and gives you recommendations on how to improve you performance are very useful and will be covered in an upcoming post. However, to start optimizing your website, you only need two kinds of tools: A browser performance monitor and a resource performance monitor. Here is the short list of those I use daily.  I am sure there are a ton of others tools that are worth mentioning , if you know one, let me know by commenting or tweeting. A browser performance monitor is the essential tool that will allow you to understand how the browser spends time rendering your page. Every major browser has either a built-in monitor (Chrome, Safari, and Internet Explorer 8/9.aspx)) or an add-on that provides it (Firebug for Firefox). I tend to mainly use Safari, which is part of the “developer tools,” because I find it more responsive than Firebug and more integrated than the Chrome one. Note that the Chrome developer tools and Safari are one and the same because they are part of Webkit, which is the Chrome and Safari rendering engine. Only their integration differs. To enable Safari developer tools, go to preferences -advanced and enable the “Develop” menu option located at the bottom of the option (see screenshot below).

Regardless of the tool you choose, it will at least provide you with two interesting reports. The first one is an overview that summarizes how the browser spent its time while rendering the page; the second one is a breakdown by resources.  For example, for my blog, the Safari report looks like this:

The summary shows a breakdown by elements type (documents, stylesheets, JavaScript and images). The detailed timeline below tells you the latency (the famous requesting phase) and the download time for each element. The blue bar tells you roughly when the main document is “loaded” and the red bar shows when all the JavaScript is executed. There is a lot to say about browser-monitoring tools and how to use them to optimize the page-rendering time, but that will be for another post, as this one is already very long and I want to finish by covering resource-monitoring tools. Analyzing resources loading time with a browser is useful to get a quick estimate of the performance, but be aware that it won’t give you the full picture, for three reasons. First, it only tells you how fast it is for you.  For visitors from a different country and ISP, these numbers will be different in term of latency and download speed. Second, the browser does not tell you how long it took to resolve the URL. While in some cases (e.g., browser DNS-prefetching) it does not matter, it is still important to know this.  Last, but not least, you don’t know how stable these numbers are, so you need multiple data points.  These data will be provided by any good monitoring service. To test how your site behaves from various points of the globe, you can use the monitis page load test or the watchmouse check site, for example.  As you can see in the monitis screenshot below, it is clear that it is much slower to access my website from Asia. This is not surprising, because my server is hosted in France.  I plan to partially solve this issue by using a CDN and I will let you know how it went in my upcoming post dedicated to CDN.

The WatchMouse diagnostic service shows another interesting piece of information about my site performance. As you can see on the screenshot, my resolve time from Hong Kong is 288ms, which accounts for 10% of the time, if the record is not in the DNS cache.  What you don’t see (because I cropped the screenshot) is that the resolve time from Vancouver takes 374 ms.  Once again, I  have bad resolve time from Vancouver and Honk Hong because my DNS is located in France. Clearly, if the goal is to get the page displayed in less than a second, 400 ms for resolving is not going to cut it.

In reality, my DNS problem is even worse than what is reported by these graphs; however, it only became apparent by continuously monitoring my site. Once again, I am using watchmouse (free trial) to do this, but there is another (free) alternative, like, which has a nice iphone app. The next screenshot shows how my website performs for a 24-hour period.

This continuous monitoring made it very clear that my DNS hosting ( is not reliable.  As is visible in this screenshot, sometimes it takes more than 1 second to resolve my domain name.  My DNS problem emphasizes how valuable it is to have continuous monitoring (from multiple locations) to pinpoint what needs to be improved. Since DNS resolving is such a big issue for me these days, my next post on performance will be about how to deal with DNS issues, and I will report how I solved my problem.

Thanks for reading this (too) long post. Let me know what you think, and don’t forget to share!